Monthly Archives: May 2013

EFFECT OF DOT GAIN IN PRINTED PRODUCT

Dot gain (also known as Tonal Value Increase) is a phenomenon in offset lithography and some other forms of printing which causes printed material to look darker than intended. It is caused by halftone dots growing in area between the original printing film and the final printed result. In practice, this means that an image that has not been adjusted to account for dot gain will appear too dark when it is printed. Dot gain calculations are often an important part of a CMYK color model. It is defined as the increase in the diameter of a halftone dot during the prepress and printing processes. Total dot gain is the difference between the dot size on the film negative and the corresponding printed dot size

Types of Dot Gain

There are basically two types of dot gain, optical and mechanical. Mechanical comes from the presses, and there are all kinds of differences that play a role. Each machine, and each printing method has its own rules and quirks when it comes to dot gain.The second type of dot gain is known as optical dot gain. This is dot gain caused by how the dot appears to the eye on the page. Optical dot gain is effected by the printing method, paper, inks, lighting and no doubt the shape of your eyeball. So there is a more subjective aspect to optical dot gain, simply because it may be more noticeable to some then others.

CAUSES

Dot gain is caused by ink spreading around halftone dots. Several factors can contribute to the increase in halftone dot area. Different paper types have different ink absorption rates; uncoated papers can absorb more ink than coated ones, and thus can show more gain. As printing pressure can squeeze the ink out of its dot shape causing gain, ink viscosity is a contributing factor with coated papers; higher viscosity inks can resist the pressure better. Halftone dots can also be surrounded by a small circumference of ink, in an effect called “rimming”. Each halftone dot has a microscopic relief, and ink will fall off the edge before being eliminated entirely by the fountain solution (in the case of offset printing). Finally, halation of the printing film during exposure can contribute to dot gain The increase of screen dot sizes in offset printing has two basic reasons: One is a characteristic of the lithographic printing technique and based on the competition of two liquids to wet the plate surface. The other one is caused by mechanical action between cylinders. In addition to that in screen areas we find higher color intensity than we would expect only from area coverage. This part of dot gain is due to light gathering below the dots.

CONTROLING DOT GAIN

Dot gain can be measured using a densitometer and color bars in absolute percentages. Dot gain is usually measured with 40% and 80% tones as reference values. A common value for dot gain is around 23% in the 40% tone for a 150 lpi screen and coated paper. Thus a dot gain of 19% means that a tint area of 40% will result in a 59% tone in the actual print. Modern prepress software usually includes utility to achieve the desired dot gain values using special compensation curves for each machine. Dot tone can be controlled best during the preparation of files. If you or your printer anticipate an issue, than leave sensitive files in their most editable formats such as native photoshop or similar files. A pre-press staff person will be able to adjust the halftones, quartertones, mid tones and even three-quarter-tones (that’s a lot of tones!) in order to adjust your files for the best printing possible.

Solvent Recovery at Gravure Printing

The main reason for solvent recovery in gravure printing presses was an economical one and not an environmental one. It started in the 1920´s. Today there are several legal restrictions, because toluene emissions are not very healthy for environment and natural life. In order to reduce the toluene losses to a minimum, it is necessary to know these losses both in quantity and origin. Once a low level of losses has been achieved, they need to be kept there. Publication gravure plants are large and complicated: keeping toluene losses low needs permanent attention. A periodic check is needed to warn at an early stage for disruption in the total system of avoiding toluene losses. Solvent balances whose function it is to prove compliance to regulations or environmental permits should be drawn up annually. This frequency is however not good enough to prevent plants from not complying. For that purpose, they need to keep track of solvent input and emissions more frequently. Monthly solvent balances are a minimum requirement. The annual balance should not be the mere sum of all the monthly balances. It should be made separately, from original data, as far as possible. This annual balance should than be compared to the sum of the monthly balances. The causes of discrepancies should be found.

Physical Techniques of solvent recovery

  1. Absorbtion:”Absorption happens, when gas is dissolved in a liquid medium.”
  2.  Activated carbon: Activated carbon acts as such a medium to adsorb a gas, in our special case vapour. This activated carbon is kept in a big container. Carbon elements are cylinders with a length of 10mm and a diameter of 4mm. Activated carbon is used because of its rough surface. One such cylinder has an inner surface of 400 an 600 m²! And one of the adsorbing containers keeps activated coal with a mass of 15 tons in it
  3. Toluene: Toluene is the solvent in most frequently used gravure inks. It brings ideal conditions with it to do that.

The Process of solvent recovery:

  1. The air from the gravure web containing toluene gets through ventilation with low pressure into the adsorbing containers and reacts with the activated carbon.
  2. The equipment must have a minimum of two adsorption containers, because while one is loading, a second one must be reconditioned. For reloading a container steam is needed with an amount of up to 10 tons per hour! This steam must be generated with a high amount of energy.
  3. The liquid now must be condensed and split in toluene and water. This works with the principle, that toluene floats on water. The water gets into a closed cycle and the toluene is sold back to the ink-producing company.

Printing Industry Waste Reduction

Waste reduction begins by understanding what is being purchased, how goods are used, and then is put to use by finding ways to eliminate, reduce, reuse and recycle materials. Wastes and emissions from our printing facility can also cause environmental compliance headaches and unnecessary drain on our operation’s profits. Eliminating the sources of hazardous waste and hazardous air and waste water contamination can often reduce costs and simplify environmental compliance. Prevention of waste, rather than after the-fact treatment of wastes, should be done just to help the environment and our company profit lists. Wastage is going to be a big problem over the entire world therefore its high time to think how we should face this out for our self even for the environment also.

Every business generates waste. For some, it may be only waste paper or dirty water; for others, it may be hazardous or toxic wastes that require special handling and disposal. Whatever the type or volume of waste your company generates, it is all the same in one respect – it is costing you money! In fact, you’re paying for it twice – once when you buy it and the second time when you throw it away. The bottom line is that preventing waste will save you money.  By consuming and throwing away less, you will reduce the need to handle, treat, and dispose of waste.

7 Simple Ways to Develop Assertive Behaviour

7 Simple Ways to Develop Assertive Behaviour Assertive behaviour means allowing everyone a level playing field –there is a respect for oneself and respect for others. There is a desire to search for win – win solutions rather than scoring personal victories over others or submitting to others. Developing assertive behaviour is key to achieving success and continuous growth in your career. Here are 7 simple ways to develop an assertive behaviour and succeed in life • Learn to maintain steady voice pattern during interpersonal communication (face to face, in a group or teleconversations). • Maintain good eye contact during face to face communication with others. • Develop ability to listen actively to others. • Having listened actively, make sure your view point is clearly understood by others. • Say no without panic, when you need to say no. Learn to be firm without getting rude with others. • Your body language must show up that you are a relaxed person. • Always be prepared to admit your mistakes and reality discuss them as the situation demands. Stay cool under such situations.

C.L Kapoor

T.P.O(S.I.T.M)

A message to Young Technocrats

SOMANY(PG) INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT   REWARI-123401, HARYANA(INDIA)

My Dear Young Technocrats

We are going to achieve what others only dream about

I take this opportunity to welcome you all on selecting this esteemed institution to build your carrier. As you know very well that our mission is to create budding technocrats who will complete globally and transform their dreams to become world class technocrats. This objective defines our entire approach towards technical education.

  1. We encourage & excite our students to explore “within” and “without”. We stress on the all-round development of students personality. We tell them “Try to be what you want to be”.
  2. We are meant for students and students are meant for us.
  3. We advise the students to stand at their own feet, whether they are highly placed or very low care not a straw for that. Go on trying and trying.

To motivate our technocrats, following are the few immortal words of great personalities:

  1. Mistake is a blessing if you take a lesson and a curse if you don’t.
  2. Seize every opportunity to do well to others.
  3. The man who thinks he knows everything actually the man who knows the least.
  4. Progress comes only from a succession of confident steps.
  5. The law of nature is either you go forward or you have to more backward.

Therefore if you want to move forward, you have to constantly work hard with determination and devotion.

If you are determined to do something extra, you can become an extraordinary person in your life. Small opportunities are often the beginning of great enterprising. I am sure you must have realized by now that to achieve your aspirations, dreams and to keep pace with latest technology, you need to put in your best efforts. I also find it my prime duty to apprise you that competition in our country for fresh Engg. Graduates in very acute and tough. However it is our endeavor that every professional knowledge, technology and job employability.

In view of the above all the students are advised to follow the guidelines listed below:

  1. Innovation and Research Program: Every student of our college is attached with one of his/her teacher/counselor. They will work under the respected teacher’s guidance so that they become capable of writing an article/paper on any innovative idea for publication in our somany International Research Journal. Any article/paper published in this journal will enhance their chances for placement and as well as help them in further higher studies.
  2. Visit to Industry: Visit to at least one industry will help you to understand the industry environment and increase your practical knowledge.
  3. Practical Work: All students are advised to complete their practical / experiment on the same day and learn the technicalities involved in the experiments. Further advised to prepare viva related to the experiment. Any innovative idea which strikes you while performing the experiment immediately inform to your teacher concerned.
  4. Project Work: Students are advised to make their projects, which have some potential for industry utility, challenging and are viable for participation in project competition conducted by FIA, GIA etc. The selected projects can also be sent for seeking grants from DST, AICTE, UGC and HRD etc.
  5. Participation: Every student must endeavor to participate in the following programs so as to enhance their knowledge, make them more confident and improve their communication skills.
  • National Conferences / International Conferences
  • Seminars
  • Symposiums
  • Workshops
  1. Travel Grants: College will help the students who are selected for presenting research papers on attending conferences outside India to meet out their main expenditure. Our students can bring   laurals in many national competitions and can be awarded many prizes.
  2. Projects for Patenting: We encourage our students to prepare some novel / innovative projects. In case the project is original and is of great potential it can be sent for patenting to TIFAC (DST) Govt. of India. This would enhance financial position and employability condition of the students. Students and faculty members are motivated to prepare projects applicable for patenting. To encourage them further, faculty incharge of the team and students of the team will be rewarded by cash prizes of suitable amount as decided by the college.

Prof. (Dr.) C Ram Singla

Director General and Editor-in-Chief,

Somany (PG) Institute of Technology and Management

E-mail:- crslibra1010@gmail.com

Contact No.: +91 9873453922

How to face Group Discussions and Succeed in them

A group discussion is a very powerful screening device to select candidates for a prospective assignment or job. Candidates of the same age level, similar education qualifications, experience and environment background are grouped together and put to a group discussion on any subject in an uninhibited manner. Usually, group discussion takes place between eight to ten candidates. All the candidates in the group can express themselves without hassles. Each of them is free to express himself/herself the way he/she pleases. There are no fixed time limits for speaking. You can express yourself fully taking your own time..!

OBJECTIVE OF A GROUP DISCUSSION:

The objective of any group discussion is to select a leader or leaders to achieve the desired results or objectives in all group endeavors. Since leaders are indispensable to achieve success, the participants are asked to compare with each other for selection to the limited vacancies. After this churning process, only those endowed with natural and leadership qualities will be able to emerge and establish themselves as leaders.

CONSTITUENTS OF A GROUP DISCUSSION:

  • A group discussion consist of the following parameters:
  • Display of communication skills.
  • Through knowledge of ideas regarding the subject.
  • Exhibiting leadership qualities.
  • Positive and cooperative approach towards other candidates in the group.
  • Addressing the group as a whole.
  • Ability to stand up to physical and mental stresses and difficulties.

DISPLAY OF COMMUNICATION:

The basic requirement to fulfill in order to fare well in any group discussion is “The power of expression”. You should be able to talk effectively and impressively so as to convince others. You will have to speak forcefully to put your idea across and create an impact by your knowledge regarding the subject. Be very precise and clear in your expression. At the same time it is also very important to have the ability to listen to others and analyze what they are putting across. How you interact with others, the way you behave is also put to test in a group discussion.

KNOWLEDGE REGARDING THE GIVEN SUBJECT:

Knowledge comes from consistent reading on various topic ranging from Science and Technology to Arts and Architecture to politics and Public relations and so on. In depth knowledge and awereness make you more confident and more convicting. With the knowledge base you’ll always stand out.

LEADERSHIP QUALITIES:

The basic aim of a group discussion is to evaluate your ability to fit yourself in the group and lead it towards attainment of its goal. You need to display tactfulness, understanding and knowledge on various topics, enterprise, assertiveness and other leadership qualities to motivate and influence other candidates who are equally competitive.

APPROACH TOWARDS OTHER CANDIDATES:

Exchange of thought takes place in the group discussion session. How you contribute in the discussion, how you take criticism, how you comprehend the main idea, the rapport you strike with other, are you accommodating, or assertive how you behave in front of others, what’s your body language, do you maintain adequate eye contact. All these small things matter a lot in establishing your favorable impression on the examiners.

ADDRESSING THE GROUP AS A WHOLE:

While addressing the group as a whole, you need to be very specific and focused. The language used should be formal and devoid of any slang whatsoever. Rather than addressing persons by name, it is better to address the group as a whole.

ABILITY TO STAND PHYSICAL AND MENTAL STRESS:

To be successful in a group discussion, you need to be very sound, emotionally and physically. You should not display any nervousness. Be sure of yourself and let others know the same.

PERSONAL SKILLS DESIRED:

The examining panel looks for initiative displayed by the candidate, his extent of self-confidence, his in-depth knowledge, and level of understanding of the subject. Another important criterion is candidate’s consistency in thinking and presentation of facts. It is observed carefully whether the candidate reiterates erroneous facts, whether he bombards others with data and complicates the issues at hand. Is he backed by correct knowledge or he shows shallow understanding and superficial knowledge.

Apart from this, equally important would be personal skill of logical and rational reasoning. You must be relaxed, pleasant, courteous and cooperative. Never be cold and aloof. It is also very important to be assertive rather than aggressive.

IMPORTANT GUIDELINES FOR CANDIDATES PREPARING FOR G.D.:

  • Always remember to keep the discussion on the mentioned subject on the track. Bring it back on track once it is off the track.
  • Do not over indulge in irrelevant discussion obscuring critical issues.
  • Be tactful to control the over-talkative member. Do not let one or two members to monopolies the discussion.
  • With your knowledge and ability, it would be useful to make original observation that steer the group into discussing other angles to the topic.
  • Be mature enough to handle criticism and provocation. Avoid personal arguments.
  • Candidates lacking self confidence tend to converse with other members instead of addressing the group directly. Avoid such sub grouping tendencies.
  • It is very important to conclude each argument at the right time and in the right time and in the right manner. You should be able to review the high lights of the instances that the group arrives at during discussion.
  • If you are not sure about the topic of discussion, do not initiate, lack of knowledge and a wrong approach creates a negative impression. You might adopt the “wait and watch” attitude. Pay adequate attention to what others have to say and may be you also come up with a point or two later.
  • Never interrupt another speaker when the session is on. Don’t try to cut others short instead listen and speak when your time comes.
  • Address the entire group in such a way that you create a favorable impression on everyone.
  • Maintain a good rapport with fellow participants. Non-verbal gestures such as listening attentively or nodding while appreciating someone’s viewpoint speak of you positively.
  • Clarity in speech and expression is another essential trait for performing well in the group discussion.

Each participant seeks to put forward his valuable viewpoint for the enrichment of the group discussion. These discussions should not degenerate into tortuous chats.

Only a leader with qualities of initiative patience and single minded focus in the face of extreme provocations deserves to get through. The leader has to go about his task continuously, systematically and methodically.

Er. CL Kapoor

Training & Placement Officer, SITM Rewari